Japanese personal names have been rendered surname first, in accordance with Japanese custom.
The hanyu pinyin Romanization system has been used to translate Chinese personal and place names, with the exception of Wade-Giles translations that are still in common use (e.g., Yangtze River, Chiang Kai-shek).
In this book we present newly unearthed information pertaining to the occupation of Nanking by Japanese military forces in 1937. We also outline the points in dispute, in the hope of inspiring a fair debate on the subject.
Japanese military personnel have been accused of slaughtering great numbers of civilians and prisoners of war over a period of several weeks, beginning with the fall of Nanking on December 13, 1937, in what is referred to as the "Nanking Massacre." The conventional wisdom concerning this topic is typified by a review of Iris Chang's Rape of Nanking that appeared in the Washington Post. In it George Will wrote, "Japanese soldiers murdered tens of thousands of surrendered Chinese soldiers, and almost certainly more than 300,000 noncombatants."1 The western world is beginning to realize that Chang's book relies on faked photographs and hugely exaggerated accounts. However, the myth of a massacre's having been perpetrated in Nanking, which has endured for several decades, remains largely unshattered.
If Japanese scholars had countered the massacre accusations with irrefutable evidence at an early stage, the current situation regarding this problem might be somewhat different. However, since they didn't, the "Nanking Massacre" has been accepted as fact to the point that it might as well have been etched in stone. Contemporary scholars hoping to discover the truth about events that took place a half-century ago are faced with tremendous challenge, requiring them to expend a huge amount of time and energy. The intention of this book is to establish a framework for the facts relating to situational and environmental factors prevailing in Nanking at the time of Japanese occupation. To that end, we have conducted a scrupulous examination of virtually every historical resource relating to the fall of Nanking in 1937, and a meticulous investigation of all available evidence. The results presented herein, substantiated by definitive historical records, are the fruit of research that consumed 15 years.
The 13 fundamental facts laid out below describe the situation in Nanking when the city was occupied by the Japanese in 1937.
It has also become clear that What War Means is a propaganda book compiled and published by the Counterintelligence Division of the Nationalist Ministry of Information's International Propaganda Section. Timperley was paid by the Ministry of Information for editing the book.5 Thus, What War Means, perceived as proof of the "Nanking Massacre," was not written from an impartial standpoint. On the contrary, it can be viewed only as war propaganda.
Rev. Bates inserted language to the effect that 12,000 civilians and 30,000 soldiers had been killed in Nanking into Chapter 3 of What War Means. The Ministry of Information should have been delighted to disseminate news of a massacre with some 40,000 victims. However, Bates claim was deleted not only from the Chinese translation of What War Means (published simultaneously with the English-language edition), but also from four other books published at about the same time.7 Doesn't this deletion signify the refusal of the Ministry of Information to lend credence to Bates' claim that 40,000 Chinese were massacred?
As we stated at the beginning of this Preface, the conventional wisdom concerning the Japanese occupation of Nanking is that 300,000 persons were massacred in that city. This is a perception that is seemingly engraved in the annals of history, and thus is difficult to dispel. It is our hope that this book will serve to dislodge, however slightly, that perception. The Nanking Massacre: Fact Versus Fiction is based on "Nankin Gyokusatsu" no Tettei Kensho [An exhaustive examination of the Nanking Massacre] (written seven years ago and examining the situation in 1937 Nanking from every conceivable perspective) and two research papers that, combined, are the fruit of 15 years of research on my part. One of the research papers is "The Nanking Massacre as War Propaganda," which I read at the International Commission of Military History held in Bucharest in August 2003. It is included in the 29th International Congress of Military History: War, Military and Media from Gutenberg to Today, issued in Bucharest by Military Publishing in 2004. The other paper was serialized in the Sankei Shinbun from January 3-8, 2005 under the title "Shin chikyu Nihon shi: 147 kai-152 kai" [New Japanese history from a global perspective: Nos.147-152]. It was subsequently included in Shin chikyu Nihon shi 2 [New Japanese history from a global perspective 2], edited by Nishio Kanji and published by Fusosha in 2005. I recommend that readers begin with the final chapter (Chapter 17: New Evidence Leads to the Conclusion that There Was No Massacre in Nanking ) on p.287.
Just as aspects of certain events, even seemingly minor aspects, can raise doubts and questions that linger in our minds, the Nanking Massacre has been haunting me for years. Some of the particularly nagging doubts and questions concern (1) the population of Nanking before and after its capture, (2) the absence of any reference on the part of the Nationalist government to a massacre in Nanking, (3) editorials in English-language magazines published by Europeans and Americans in Shanghai and (4) burials.
Seven years ago, I analyzed each of these difficult questions, one by one. The result of my efforts is "Nankin gyakusatsu" no tettei kensho [An exhaustive examination of the "Nanking Massacre"]. I began with the verification of the most elementary facts, even widely accepted theories. For instance, I did not accept any item of information as fact until it had been proven so, all the time being careful to avoid "precipitancy and prejudice." So that I would not overlook even one contemporary record, during my journey to "knowledge of the more complex," I took pains to "make enumerations so complete, and reviews so general" in my journey to "knowledge of the more complex." Without even being aware of it at first, I was following the four Cartesian precepts outlined in A Discourse on Method.
My mission in writing "Nankin gyakusatsu" no tettei kensho [An exhaustive examination of the "Nanking Massacre"] was, while avoiding precipitancy and prejudice, to verify the facts through the conduct of a meticulous, exhaustive examination of contemporary records. My intensive research into the "Nanking Massacre" brought me to the conclusion that the evidence supporting the massacre claim is unreliable at best.
Five years later, however, I was made aware of the existence of records that I had not examined. In January 2003, I visited the Museum of Chinese Nationalist Party History in Taipei, where I unearthed a top-secret document dated 1941 and entitled Outline of the Operations of the International Information Department, Ministry of Information. Readers are referred to Chapters 16 and 17 for my analysis of that document. The top-secret document in question demonstrated beyond a doubt that there was absolutely no historical perception of a massacre in Nanking, not within the Nationalist Party nor the Communist Party during the Second Nationalist-Communist United Front (established in 1937). The time has come for a complete reexamination of the "Nanking Massacre," with a focus on this top-secret document. I hope to publish the results of that reexamination in Japan in the near future.
Now that the Internet has become such a popular forum, one sees unauthenticated photographs that purportedly bear witness to a massacre in Nanking posted on countless Web sites. Therefore, we have conducted the first comprehensive study of the 143 photographs offered as evidence of the "Nanking Massacre." After scouring approximately 30,000 photographs in photojournalistic magazines published (before and after the Japanese capture of Nanking) in Japan and the U.S., we have discovered that every single one of these "evidentiary photographs" published in 1937-8 is a fake, the product of splicing, staging or false captioning. See Nankin jiken "shoko shashin" wo kensho suru [Analyzing "Photographic Evidence" of the Nanking Massacre], issued in February 2005, for the results of our research. We expect to post an English translation on the Internet (http://www2.asia-u.ac.jp/~jh2cqxyz) in the near future.
In closing, I would like to acknowledge the many people who urged me to have this book translated into English seven years ago, when it first came out in Japanese under the title "Nankin gyakusatsu" no tettei kensho [An exhaustive examination of the "Nanking Massacre"]. Special thanks are due to Ito Takashi, professor emeritus at University of Tokyo; Kobori Keiichiro, ex-professor emeritus at University of Tokyo; Tonooka Akio, ex-professpr at Tokyo Gakugei University; Watanabe Shoichi, professor emeritus at Sophia University; Odamura Shiro, ex-chancellor at Takushoku University; Nagoshi Futaranosuke, ex-professor at Takachiho University; Dr. Komuro Naoki, Sato Kazuo, professor emeritus at Aoyama Gakuin University; Takubo Tadae, professor at Kyorin University; Nishio Kanji, professor emeritus at University of Electro-Communications; Suginoo Yoshio, ex-professor at National Defence Academy; Ko Bunyu, visiting professor at Takushoku University; Nakagaki Hideo, ex-professor at National Defense Academy; Kitamura Yoshikazu, professor at Aichi University of Education; Sugihara Seishiro, professor at Musashino University; Hasegawa Michiko, professor at Saitama University; Nakagawa Yatsuhiro, professor at Tsukuba University; Nakanishi Terumasa, professor at Kyoto University; Matsumoto Michihiro, ex-professor at Honolulu University; the Messrs. Nakajima Shinzaburo, Hara Takizo, Kondo Yasushi, Saisu Shigekazu, Masuda Toshio, Moteki Hiromichi and Ms. Mayumi Atsuko.
The author would also like to express his gratitude to Takemoto Tadao, professor emeritus at Tsukuba University; Fujioka Nobukatsu, formerly professor at University of Tokyo and currently professor at Takushoku University; and the Messrs. Takahana Yutaka, Iwata Yoshiyasu and Yuhara Masataka for their unceasing support and encouragement during the long road to publication.Higashinakano Shudo
Born in Kagoshima in 1947, Dr. HIGASHINAKANO Shudo is professor of history of political thought and Japanese intellectual history at Asia University in Tokyo. He majored in the history of German political thought and socialism at Kagoshima University and Osaka University. Prior to his appointment as professor at Asia University in 1995, he served as visiting professor of Japanese intellectual history at Western Washington University (1985-86), and visiting scholar at the University of Hamburg (1988-89).
In 1990, a year after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Dr. Higashinakano started to research the situation in Nanking in 1937. And since 1995, the main focus of his research interest has been this subject. He has been president of Japan Nanking Society since 2000. The original title of this translated work is "Nankin gyakusatsu" no tettei kensho [An exhaustive study of the "Nanking Massacre"] (Tokyo: Tendensha, 1998).
He has published many books, among them Nankin jiken "shoko shashin" wo kensho suru [Analyzing the "photographic evidence" of the Nanking Massacre] (co-authored with Kobayashi Susumu and Fukunaga Shinjiro, Tokyo: Soshisha, 2005), Nankin gyakusatsu kenkyu no saizensen, vols.1-4 [The front line of research on the Nanking Massacre, vols. 1-4] (Tokyo: Tendensha, 2002-2005), 1937 Nankin koryaku sen no shinjitsu [The truth about the capture of Nanking in 1937] (Tokyo: Shogakukan Bunko, 2003), An Overview of the Nanking Massacre (Osaka: Kokumin Kaikan, 1999), Za reipu obu Nankin no kenkyu [A Study of the Rape of Nanking] (coauthored with Fujioka Nobukatsu, Tokyo: Tendensha, 1999), Higashi Doitsu shakaishugi taisei no kenkyu [A study of the socialistic System in East Germany] (Tokyo: Nansosha, 1996), and Kokka hasan: Higashi Doitsu shakaishugi no 45 nen [Bankruptcy of a state: 45 Years of Socialism in East Germany] (Tokyo: Tendensha, 1992). One of his research papers, titled "The Overall Picture of the Nanking Massacre," is included in Nanking 1937: Memory and Healing (New York: M. E. Sharpe, 2002).