Fact Versus Fiction

A Historian's Quest for the Truth


Professor of Intellectual History
Asia University, Tokyo

Translated by Sekai Shuppan

Sekai Shuppan, Inc., Tokyo

Published by Sekai Shuppan, Inc.
Shin Sakuma Building 3F
2-13-14, Nishi-Shimbashi,
Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003

Copyright (c)2005 by Higashinakano Shudo
Original Japanese Language edition
Published by Tendensha, Tokyo, Japan 1998.
English edition first published by Sekai Shuppan, Inc.
in soft cover 2005.
Hard cover edition published by Sekai Shuppan, Inc. 2006.

All rights reserved, including the rights of
reproduction in whole or in part in any form.

Designed by Hidaka Miki

First edition

Printed in Japan.

ISBN 4-916079-12-4 (sc.)
ISBN 4-916079-13-2 (hc.)

Translator's Note

Japanese personal names have been rendered surname first, in accordance with Japanese custom.

The hanyu pinyin Romanization system has been used to translate Chinese personal and place names, with the exception of Wade-Giles translations that are still in common use (e.g., Yangtze River, Chiang Kai-shek).


In this book we present newly unearthed information pertaining to the occupation of Nanking by Japanese military forces in 1937. We also outline the points in dispute, in the hope of inspiring a fair debate on the subject.

Japanese military personnel have been accused of slaughtering great numbers of civilians and prisoners of war over a period of several weeks, beginning with the fall of Nanking on December 13, 1937, in what is referred to as the "Nanking Massacre." The conventional wisdom concerning this topic is typified by a review of Iris Chang's Rape of Nanking that appeared in the Washington Post. In it George Will wrote, "Japanese soldiers murdered tens of thousands of surrendered Chinese soldiers, and almost certainly more than 300,000 noncombatants."1 The western world is beginning to realize that Chang's book relies on faked photographs and hugely exaggerated accounts. However, the myth of a massacre's having been perpetrated in Nanking, which has endured for several decades, remains largely unshattered.

If Japanese scholars had countered the massacre accusations with irrefutable evidence at an early stage, the current situation regarding this problem might be somewhat different. However, since they didn't, the "Nanking Massacre" has been accepted as fact to the point that it might as well have been etched in stone. Contemporary scholars hoping to discover the truth about events that took place a half-century ago are faced with tremendous challenge, requiring them to expend a huge amount of time and energy. The intention of this book is to establish a framework for the facts relating to situational and environmental factors prevailing in Nanking at the time of Japanese occupation. To that end, we have conducted a scrupulous examination of virtually every historical resource relating to the fall of Nanking in 1937, and a meticulous investigation of all available evidence. The results presented herein, substantiated by definitive historical records, are the fruit of research that consumed 15 years.

The 13 fundamental facts laid out below describe the situation in Nanking when the city was occupied by the Japanese in 1937.

  1. Most of the cities on the Eurasian continent were fortified or walled, hence the German word Burg, which means "fortified town." Until the 20th century, Chinese cities were fortified for defensive purposes, as were ancient Athens, Rome, Jerusalem, Baghdad, Constantinople, Moscow, Hamburg and Paris until the February Revolution. Nanking was surrounded by immense walls. Once the city was captured, its gates were under tight military control. The Japanese did not allow ordinary citizens free access to those gates until two and a half months had elapsed. Nevertheless, 20 days before and immediately prior to the fall of Nanking, the city's population was 200,000, according to Europeans and Americans who were there at the time. Eight days after the fall and on Christmas Eve, it was still 200,000. No one indicated a vast decrease in population due to mass slaughter. Confronted by these facts, how can anyone claim that 300,000 noncombatants were murdered in Nanking?

  2. The situation in Nanking in 1937 was similar to that in Iraq in 2004: prior to the capture of the city, Chinese troops stripped off their uniforms and mingled with the civilian population. By doing so, they became unlawful combatants not protected by the Regulations Concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land annexed to the Hague Convention. No Chinese military personnel inside the city walls surrendered to the Japanese. Accordingly, during the 11-year period spanning December 13, 1937, the day Nanking fell, to December 1948, when the Tokyo Trials ended, no one accused Japanese troops of having killed prisoners of war in violation of the aforementioned regulations. Confronted with these facts, how can anyone claim that the Japanese murdered prisoners of war?

  3. The Japanese are accused of having murdered 7,000 persons each day, i.e., 300,000 persons over a period of six weeks. But according to "Daily Reports of Serious Injuries to Civilians," the only killing witnessed by a European or American in Nanking was one "lawful execution." The contents of these reports (issued on a daily basis and submitted to the Japanese Embassy in Nanking) are corroborated by data gathered from the testimonies of European, American and Chinese residents in Nanking, and from Japanese military records (all of which data has been computerized and analyzed).2 How do we explain a massacre with no witnesses?

  4. One of the foundation upon which the massacre myth is based is What War Means, edited by Harold Timperley. In it, he wrote that the "following selection of cases" (from the daily reports of serious injuries to civilians in Nanking) "completes the story of the first two months of the Japanese Army's occupation of Nanking."3 The aforementioned reports were appended to the book, but contained absolutely no eyewitness accounts of unlawful murders. The book, however, also includes a section (written under an assumed name) that refers to "frequent murder" attributed to Japanese. How do we explain this inconsistency.

  5. Rev. Miner Searle Bates and George Fitch submitted material for What War Means (both used pseudonyms). The ostensible intent of the book, edited by Timperley, was to impress upon the reader the horrors of war via accounts written by disinterested parties (European and American residents of Nanking). But Timperley was, in fact, an advisor to the Nationalist government's Ministry of Information. Rev. Bates, a famous Christian missionary who taught at the University of Nanking, was also an advisor to the Ministry of Information. And Mrs. Fitch was a close friend of Mme. Chiang Kai-shek.4

    It has also become clear that What War Means is a propaganda book compiled and published by the Counterintelligence Division of the Nationalist Ministry of Information's International Propaganda Section. Timperley was paid by the Ministry of Information for editing the book.5 Thus, What War Means, perceived as proof of the "Nanking Massacre," was not written from an impartial standpoint. On the contrary, it can be viewed only as war propaganda.

  6. Also perceived as proof of the "Nanking Massacre" are articles carried in the Chicago Daily News and the New York Times. They refer to reports of "frequent murder"6 committed by the Japanese during the three days following the fall of Nanking. However, it turns out that Bates was the source of the reports. Bates' report describing those three days was used in What War Means (Chapter 1), edited by Timperley. But a look at the daily reports that Bates personally delivered to the Japanese Embassy reveals not one case of witnessed murder. Nevertheless, foreign residents of Nanking described "frequent murder." Aren't Rev. Bates' report and American newspaper articles inconsistent with contemporaneous records?

  7. Although we have leaned that What War Means is a propaganda book issued by the Nationalist Ministry of Information, we cannot immediately dismiss its contents. But we must present some important information that cannot be ignored.

    Rev. Bates inserted language to the effect that 12,000 civilians and 30,000 soldiers had been killed in Nanking into Chapter 3 of What War Means. The Ministry of Information should have been delighted to disseminate news of a massacre with some 40,000 victims. However, Bates claim was deleted not only from the Chinese translation of What War Means (published simultaneously with the English-language edition), but also from four other books published at about the same time.7 Doesn't this deletion signify the refusal of the Ministry of Information to lend credence to Bates' claim that 40,000 Chinese were massacred?

  8. A top secret document issued by the Ministry of Information in 1941 and entitled "Outline of the Operations of the International Information Department, Ministry of Information" never mentions a massacre. The document contains a summary of crimes ("rapes, arsons and lootings, violations of ... basic standards of human decency") that are mentioned in the description of Nanking as a living hell in What War Means, but does not mention a massacre. Doesn't this mean that the Ministry of Information had no knowledge of the "Nanking Massacre?"

  9. According to the aforementioned top-secret document, the International Information Department (a branch of the Ministry of Information established not long before the fall of Nanking) sponsored 300 press conferences for foreign journalists between December 1, 1937 and October 24, 1938. During that time, emergency press conferences were called whenever important news broke (even in the dead of night, according to reports), and the news was transmitted all over the world. But no press conference was ever called to announce a massacre in Nanking. Why not? Doesn't this information tell us that the Ministry of Information did not believe that there had been a Nanking Massacre?

  10. The July 9, 1938 issue of China Forum, which was published by the Ministry of Information seven months after the fall of Nanking, carried a feature entitled "One Year of Sino-Japanese War: Review Questions for Study Groups." One of the questions was "What was the attitude of China after the fall of Nanking? The answer (intended to serve as a model) was "General Chiang Kai-shek said on December 16, 1937: 'No matter how the present situation may change, we must not surrender but march onward.'" The Ministry of Information never alluded to a "Nanking Massacre" Neither did Mao Zedong, who criticized Japanese military strategy in one of his famous lectures, stating that Japanese troops committed a strategical error by not annihilating enemy soldiers in Nanking. Wasn't Mao, too, refuting the massacre argument?

  11. As we demonstrated in Nankin jiken "shoko shashin" wo kensho suru [Analyzing "the Photographic Evidence" of the Nanking Massacre],8 the photographs circulating the world, allegedly substantiating the massacre argument are fakes whose origins can be traced to propaganda books (Japanese Military Atrocities Witnessed by Foreigners, issued by the Ministry of Information in July 1938; and Record of Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Enemy, issued by the National Military Council of the Nationalist Government, also in July 1938). All the photographs are montages, staged, or falsely captioned. Not one of them is proof of a massacre in Nanking.

  12. When Hitler rose to power in 1933, many Jews in Germany fled to other countries. Many nations refused to open their doors to the Jews, but Maj.-Gen. Higuchi Kiichiro, head of the Harbin Special Agency, welcomed them. Higuchi lent his support to the first conference of Jewish communities in the Far East, held at Harbin in December 1937. Three months later, he helped a great number of Jews who had traveled through Siberia to enter Manchuria from Otpor, across the Soviet border. His name is inscribed in the Golden Book of the Jewish National Fund in Israel.9 Note that just a year later in May 1939, 936 Jewish refugees on board the German luxury liner St. Louis were denied entry to the United States. Eventually, the passengers reached Great Britain, France and the Netherlands, each of which agreed to accept some of them. The Jews who went to Great Britain survived, but the others were sent to the gas chambers when the Germans occupied France and the Netherlands.10 How could the same institution have risked Nazi retaliation by openly allowing Jews to enter Manchuria, which is not so distant from Nanking, in March 1938 and secretly perpetrated "the forgotten holocaust of World War II" between December 1937 and January 1938?

  13. On January 27 and 28, 45 days after the fall of Nanking, the Japanese military transported approximately 1,000 refugees (from Shanghai and its environs) who had fled to Nanking and had expressed the desire to return to Shanghai. They also transported all displaced Chinese to their homes in the Nanking area, beginning on January 29.11 The transport was in compliance with orders issued by the Japanese commander in chief, General Matsui Iwane to that effect (see p. 63). If the same people who showed such kindness also massacred thousands of Chinese, we would have to ascribe (incorrectly) a Jekyll-and-Hyde nature to the Japanese military.

As we stated at the beginning of this Preface, the conventional wisdom concerning the Japanese occupation of Nanking is that 300,000 persons were massacred in that city. This is a perception that is seemingly engraved in the annals of history, and thus is difficult to dispel. It is our hope that this book will serve to dislodge, however slightly, that perception. The Nanking Massacre: Fact Versus Fiction is based on "Nankin Gyokusatsu" no Tettei Kensho [An exhaustive examination of the Nanking Massacre] (written seven years ago and examining the situation in 1937 Nanking from every conceivable perspective) and two research papers that, combined, are the fruit of 15 years of research on my part. One of the research papers is "The Nanking Massacre as War Propaganda," which I read at the International Commission of Military History held in Bucharest in August 2003. It is included in the 29th International Congress of Military History: War, Military and Media from Gutenberg to Today, issued in Bucharest by Military Publishing in 2004. The other paper was serialized in the Sankei Shinbun from January 3-8, 2005 under the title "Shin chikyu Nihon shi: 147 kai-152 kai" [New Japanese history from a global perspective: Nos.147-152]. It was subsequently included in Shin chikyu Nihon shi 2 [New Japanese history from a global perspective 2], edited by Nishio Kanji and published by Fusosha in 2005. I recommend that readers begin with the final chapter (Chapter 17: New Evidence Leads to the Conclusion that There Was No Massacre in Nanking ) on p.287.


























Just as aspects of certain events, even seemingly minor aspects, can raise doubts and questions that linger in our minds, the Nanking Massacre has been haunting me for years. Some of the particularly nagging doubts and questions concern (1) the population of Nanking before and after its capture, (2) the absence of any reference on the part of the Nationalist government to a massacre in Nanking, (3) editorials in English-language magazines published by Europeans and Americans in Shanghai and (4) burials.

Seven years ago, I analyzed each of these difficult questions, one by one. The result of my efforts is "Nankin gyakusatsu" no tettei kensho [An exhaustive examination of the "Nanking Massacre"]. I began with the verification of the most elementary facts, even widely accepted theories. For instance, I did not accept any item of information as fact until it had been proven so, all the time being careful to avoid "precipitancy and prejudice." So that I would not overlook even one contemporary record, during my journey to "knowledge of the more complex," I took pains to "make enumerations so complete, and reviews so general" in my journey to "knowledge of the more complex." Without even being aware of it at first, I was following the four Cartesian precepts outlined in A Discourse on Method.

My mission in writing "Nankin gyakusatsu" no tettei kensho [An exhaustive examination of the "Nanking Massacre"] was, while avoiding precipitancy and prejudice, to verify the facts through the conduct of a meticulous, exhaustive examination of contemporary records. My intensive research into the "Nanking Massacre" brought me to the conclusion that the evidence supporting the massacre claim is unreliable at best.

Five years later, however, I was made aware of the existence of records that I had not examined. In January 2003, I visited the Museum of Chinese Nationalist Party History in Taipei, where I unearthed a top-secret document dated 1941 and entitled Outline of the Operations of the International Information Department, Ministry of Information. Readers are referred to Chapters 16 and 17 for my analysis of that document. The top-secret document in question demonstrated beyond a doubt that there was absolutely no historical perception of a massacre in Nanking, not within the Nationalist Party nor the Communist Party during the Second Nationalist-Communist United Front (established in 1937). The time has come for a complete reexamination of the "Nanking Massacre," with a focus on this top-secret document. I hope to publish the results of that reexamination in Japan in the near future.

Now that the Internet has become such a popular forum, one sees unauthenticated photographs that purportedly bear witness to a massacre in Nanking posted on countless Web sites. Therefore, we have conducted the first comprehensive study of the 143 photographs offered as evidence of the "Nanking Massacre." After scouring approximately 30,000 photographs in photojournalistic magazines published (before and after the Japanese capture of Nanking) in Japan and the U.S., we have discovered that every single one of these "evidentiary photographs" published in 1937-8 is a fake, the product of splicing, staging or false captioning. See Nankin jiken "shoko shashin" wo kensho suru [Analyzing "Photographic Evidence" of the Nanking Massacre], issued in February 2005, for the results of our research. We expect to post an English translation on the Internet ( in the near future.

In closing, I would like to acknowledge the many people who urged me to have this book translated into English seven years ago, when it first came out in Japanese under the title "Nankin gyakusatsu" no tettei kensho [An exhaustive examination of the "Nanking Massacre"]. Special thanks are due to Ito Takashi, professor emeritus at University of Tokyo; Kobori Keiichiro, ex-professor emeritus at University of Tokyo; Tonooka Akio, ex-professpr at Tokyo Gakugei University; Watanabe Shoichi, professor emeritus at Sophia University; Odamura Shiro, ex-chancellor at Takushoku University; Nagoshi Futaranosuke, ex-professor at Takachiho University; Dr. Komuro Naoki, Sato Kazuo, professor emeritus at Aoyama Gakuin University; Takubo Tadae, professor at Kyorin University; Nishio Kanji, professor emeritus at University of Electro-Communications; Suginoo Yoshio, ex-professor at National Defence Academy; Ko Bunyu, visiting professor at Takushoku University; Nakagaki Hideo, ex-professor at National Defense Academy; Kitamura Yoshikazu, professor at Aichi University of Education; Sugihara Seishiro, professor at Musashino University; Hasegawa Michiko, professor at Saitama University; Nakagawa Yatsuhiro, professor at Tsukuba University; Nakanishi Terumasa, professor at Kyoto University; Matsumoto Michihiro, ex-professor at Honolulu University; the Messrs. Nakajima Shinzaburo, Hara Takizo, Kondo Yasushi, Saisu Shigekazu, Masuda Toshio, Moteki Hiromichi and Ms. Mayumi Atsuko.

The author would also like to express his gratitude to Takemoto Tadao, professor emeritus at Tsukuba University; Fujioka Nobukatsu, formerly professor at University of Tokyo and currently professor at Takushoku University; and the Messrs. Takahana Yutaka, Iwata Yoshiyasu and Yuhara Masataka for their unceasing support and encouragement during the long road to publication.

Higashinakano Shudo
August 1, 2005


Sources written between the eve of the fall of Nanking and March 1938

I. In Japanese

Abegg, Lily. "Nankin Dasshutsuki" (Escape from Nanking). Bungei Shunju, February 1938.

Akimoto Ken, ed. Nankin Eiga Fukkokuhan Shirizu (Reprints from Film Records of the Battle of Nanking, Series 21). Kokusho Kankokai, 1997.

"Arison Jiken Kaiketsu Su" (The Allison Incident Is Resolved). Kokusai Chishiki oyobi Hyoron (International Scholarship and Commentary), March 1938. Nihon Kokusai Kyokai.

Dokuritsu Kojo Juhohei Daini Daitai (4th Independent Siege Heavy Artillery Battalion). "Shinjo Senkakumonchin Fukin Sento Shoho: Junigatsu Jusannichi Gozen Ichiji - Junigatsu Jusannichi Shogo" (Battle Report for Engagements in the Vicinity of Xianhe Gate, Xinya, Between 0100 Hours and 1200 Hours on December 13).

"Eibei Kansen Gosha Jiken to I Kisha no Sonan" (Incident Involving the Accidental Shelling of British and American Warships and the Unfortunate Fate of an Italian Journalist). Kokusai Chishiki oyobi Hyoron (International Scholarship and Commentary), Feburary 1938. Nihon Kokusai Kyokai.

Hohei Daikyu Rentai Daini Daitai (2nd Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment). "Tosuichin Fukin Sento Shoho Daihachigo: Showa Juninen Junigatsu Muika - Junigatsu Yoka" (Battle Report No. 8: Engagements in the Vicinity of Tangshuizhen 12/06 - 12/08/1937).

Hohei Daikyu Rentai Daini Daitai (2nd Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment). "Shikinsan Fukin Sento Shoho Daikyugo: Showa Juninen Junigatsu Kokonoka - Junigatsu Jusannnichi" (Battle Report No. 9: Engagements in the Vicinity of Zijinshan 12/09 - 12/13/37).

Hohei Dairokujuroku Rentai Daini Daitai (2nd Battalion, 66th Infantry Regiment). "Hohei Dairokujuroku Rentai Daini Daitai Jinchu Nisshi" (War Journal of the 2nd Battalion, 66th Infantry Regiment).

Hohei Daisanjuroku Rentai. "Chushina Homen ni Okeru Kodo Gaiyo: Showa Juninen Kugatsu Kokonoka - Juyonen Shichigatsu Juichinichi" (Central China Area Operation Outline: 09/09/37 - 07/11/39).

Hora Tomio, ed. Nicchu Senso Nankin Daigyakusatsu Jiken Shiryoshu (2) Eibun Shiryohen (Source Material Relating to the Great Nanking Massacre during the Second Sino Japanese War, Vol. 2: English-Language Sources). Aoki Shoten, 1986.

Ishii Hisashi, ed. Kachu Senbu Kosaku: Jugonen Senso Gokuhi Shiryo, Dai 13 Shu (Central China [Placation/Conciliation] Operations: 15 Years of Top-Secret War Records, Vol. 13). Fuji Shuppan, 1989.

"Kanraku Zen'ya no Nankin" (The Eve of the Fall of Nanking). Kokusai Chishiki oyobi Hyoron (International Scholarship and Commentary), February 1938. Nihon Kokusai Kyokai.

"Nankin Anzen Chitai Fushonin Seimei" (Announcement of Refusal To Recognize Nanking Safety Zone). Gaiko Jiho (Foreign Affairs Review), No. 794. Gaiko Jihosha, January 1, 1938.

Nankin Jiken Chosa Kenkyukai Hen (Nanking Incident Research Group). Nankin Jiken Shiryoshu: (1) Amerika Kankei Shiryo Hen (Nanking Incident Source Material, Vol. 1: American References). Aoki Shoten, 1992.

Nankin Jiken Chosa Kenkyukai Hen (Nanking Incident Research Group). Nankin Jiken Shiryoshu: (1) Chugoku Kankei Shiryo Hen (Nanking Incident Source Material, Vol. 2: Chinese References). Aoki Shoten, 1992.

"Nankin Kanrakugo no Kokkyo Ryoto Kankei" (Nationalist and Communist Party Relations After the Fall of Nanking). Toa (East Asia), February 1938. Zaidan Hojin Toa Keizai Chosa Kyoku.

"Nankin Kanrakugo no Sho Seiken" (Chiang's Government After the Fall of Nanking). Kokusai Chishiki oyobi Hyoron (International Scholarship and Commentary), February 1938. Nihon Kokusai Kyokai.

"Nankin ni Jichi Iinkai Seiritsu Su" (Self-Government Committee Established in Nanking). Kokusai Chishiki oyobi Hyoron (International Scholarship and Commentary), February 1938. Nihon Kokusai Kyokai.

Nankin Senshi Henshu Iinkai Hen (Battle of Nanking Editorial Committee). Nankin Senshi (The Battle of Nanking). Kaikosha, 1993.

Nankin Senshi Henshu Iinkai Hen (Battle of Nanking Editorial Committee). Nankin Senshi Shiryoshu I (Source Material Relating to the Battle of Nanking, Vol. 1). Kaikosha, 1993.

Nankin Senshi Henshu Iinkai Hen (Battle of Nanking Editorial Committee). Nankin Senshi Shiryoshu II (Source Material Relating to the Battle of Nanking, Vol. 2). Kaikosha, 1993.

Timperley, Harold, ed. Gaikokujin no Mita Nihongun no Boko (Japanese Army Atrocities as Witnessed by a Foreigner). Hyodensha, 1982.

II. In other languages

Abegg, Lily. "Wie wir aus Nanking fluchteten: Die letzten Tage in der Haupstadt Chinas" (Escape from Nanking: Our Last Days in China's Capital). Frankfurter Zeitung, December 19, 1937.

Anonymous. "Japan's 'Danse Macabre' in Nanking." China Forum, March 19, 1938.

K.B. "Events and Comments: The War in China." The China Journal, January 1938.

K.B. "Events and Comments: The War Continues." The China Journal, February 1938.

Bruce, George. Shanghai's Undeclared War. Shanghai: Mercury Press, 1937.

Durdin, Tillman. Butchery Marked Capture of Nanking, in The New York Times, December 18, 1937.

Esther Tappert Mortensen papers, Record Group No. 21, Box 7, Folder 120,, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Divinity School Library.

H.C. "One Year of Sino-Japanese Conflict." China Quarterly, Summer 1938.

The China Year Book 1938. Shanghai: The North China Daily News & Herald, March 1938.

Fitch, Robert. "The Christian Church and War Relief." The Chinese Recorder, March 1938.

Minnie Vautrin's letter: A Review of the First Month\December 13, 1937 to January 13, 1938, in: Archives of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia, Record Group No.11, Box 145, New Haven, Connecticut; Yale Divinity School Library.

Nielsen, Peter. "The Nanking Atrocities." China Today, January 1938.

"Outstanding Events in the Sino-Japanese War." The China Weekly Review, January 29, 1938.

Snow, Edgar. Red Star Over China, 1937. New York: Garden City Publishing, 1939.

Steele, Archibald. Nanking Massacre Story: Japanese Troops Kill Thousands, in The Chicago Daily News, December 15, 1937.

Timperley, Harold, ed. Japanese Terror in China, 1938. New York: Books for Library Press, 1969.

Vautrin, Minnie. Minnie Vautrin's Diary 1937-1940, in: Miscellaneous Personal Papers Collection, Record Group No.8, Box 206, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Divinity School Library.

Zhang Kaiyuan, ed. Eyewitnessets to Massacre: American Missionaries Bear Witness to Japanese Atrocities in Nanjing, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2001.

Sources written between April 1938 and the first anniversary of the Second Sino-Japanese War (July 1938)

Anonymous. "Review of the First Year of the War." The China Weekly Review, July 9, 1938.

Chinese Nationalist Party, ed. Chuo Sendenbu Kokusai Sendensho Kosaku Gaiyo: 1938 Nen Kara 1941 Nen 4 Gatsu(The Outline of Maneuvering of International Information Division, Ministry of Information: from 1938 to April 1941), Chungking: The Chinese Nationalist Party 1941, mimeograph.

Chinese Nationalist Party's Ministry of Information, ed. Japanese Military Atrocities Witnessed by Foreigners, 1938.

National Military Council of the Nationalist Government, ed. Record of Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Enemy, National Military Council of the Nationalist Government 1938.

Deutsche Gesandschaft/Botschaft in China: Japanisch-Chinesischer Konflikt, Dezember 1937-January 1939 (The German Embassy in China: The Sino-Japanese Conflict, December 1937 - January 1939). Microfilm: Federal Archives, Potsdam Division.

H.C. "One Year of the Sino-Japanese Conflict." China Quarterly, Summer 1938.

"Editorials: A Year of Undeclared War." The China Critic, July 7, 1938.

Norton, Robert. "One Year of War." China Today, July 1938.

"One Year of the Sino-Japanese War: Review Questions for Study Groups." China Forum, July 9, 1938.

Smythe, Lewis S.C. War Damage in the Nanking Area, December 1937 to March 1938: Urban and Rural Surveys, On Behalf of the Nanking International Relief Committee. June 1938.

Smythe, Lewis S. C. Report of the Nanking International Relief Committee, November 1937 to April 1939, in: Miner Searle Bates's Papers, Record Group No. 10, Box102, Folder 867, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Divinity School Library.

South, Peter. "Nanking and Taierchwang - Where Japan Lost the War." The China Weekly Review, June 11, 1938.

Sowerby, Arthur de C. "One Year of Undeclared War in China." The China Journal, July 1938.

Vautrin, Minnie. "Sharing 'the Abundant Life' in a Refugee Camp." The Chinese Recorder, July-August 1938.

Wickert, Erwin, ed. John Rabe, Der Gute Deutsche von Nanking (John Rabe, the Good German of Nanking). Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags Anstalt, 1997.

Williams, Frederick. Behind the News in China. New York: Nelson Hughes Company, 1938.

Sources written between August 1938 and 1940

I. In Japanese

Hai Yan, ed. Konichi Gunsei Daigakuno Doutai. (Evolution of the Anti-Japanese Military and Political College). Hanko Doinsha, 1938. Kansai Daigaku Tozai Gakujutsu Kenky jo (Kansai University Institute of Oriental and Occidental Studies), 1965.

Helsey, Edouard. "Shina Jihen Mita Mama" (Witness to The Second Sino-Japanese War). Kokusai Panfuretto Tsushin (International News Pamphlet), No. 1120, August 1, 1938.

Isobe Eiichi, ed. Jusannenban Saishin Shina Yoran (New Survey of China: 1938 Edition). Toa Kenkyukai, 1938.

Kachu Gensei: Showa Juyonenban (Central China Today: 1939 Edition). Shanghai Mainichi Shinbunsha, 1939.

Taoka Ryoichi. Kokusai Hogaku Taiko (General Principles of International Law). Genshodo Shoten, 1939.

Toa Dobunkai. Shin Shina Gensei Yoran (The Current Situation in China). Toa Dobunkai, 1938.

II. In other languages

Abegg, Lily. Chinas Erneuerung: Der Raum als Waffe (The Renewal of China: Space as a Weapon). Frankfurt am Main: Societats-Verlag, 1940.

The China Year Book 1939. Shanghai: The North-China Daily News & Herald, 1939.

The Chinese Year Book 1938-39, Prepared from Official Sources by the Council of International Affairs, Chunking. Shanghai, 1939. (Klaus Reprint, 1968)

Hsu Shuhsi, ed. A Digest of Japanese War Conduct. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1939.

Hsu Shuhsi, ed. Documents of the Nanking Safety Zone. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1939.

Hsu Shuhsi, ed. The War Conduct of the Japanese. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1938

Tsu Y.Y. "The Christian Church in War-time Service." China Quarterly, Winter 1938-9.

Sources written between 1941 and August 1945

I. In Japanese

Asahi Shinbunsha Chuo Chosakai Hen (Asahi Shinbun Central Research Committee). Asahi Toa Nenpo: Showa 13-16 Nenban (Asahi East Asian Almanac: 1938-1941). Asahi Shinbunsha, 1941.

Buck, Pearl. "Shina Jihen to Nisshi no Kokuminsei" (The Sino-Japanese War and the Japanese and Chinese National Character). Shina (China), November 1938. Toa Dobunkai.

Farrere, Claude. "Shina Kiko" (Travels in China). Shina (China), September 1938. Toa Dobunkai.

Hora Tomio, ed. Nicchu Senso Nankin Daigyakusatsu Jiken Shiryoshu (1) Kyokuto Kokusai Gunji Saiban Kankei Shiryohen (Source Material Relating to the Great Nanking Massacre during the Second Sino Japanese War, Vol. 1: Sources from the International Military Tribunal for the Far East). Aoki Shoten, 1986.

Ichiki Yoshimichi, ed. Nankin (Nanking). Nankin Nippon Shoko Kaigijo (Nanking Japanese Chamber of Commerce), 1941.

Rikugun Gahosha. Shina Jihen: Senseki no Shiori (The Second Sino-Japanese War: A Guide to Former Battle Sites). Rikugun Shuppeibu, 1938.

Shinobu Junpei. Senji Kokusaiho Teiyo (Compendium of International Law in Time of War). Shorindo, 1943.

Snow, Edgar. Ajia no Hoka (Signal Fire from Asia), Daitoasho Somukyoku (Administration Department of Ministry of Greater East Asia), 1943.

II. In English

Snow, Edgar. The Battle for Asia. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1941.

Sources written after September 1945

I. In Japanese

Ara Kenichi. "Jorui: Heishitachi no Nankin Jiken" (Fortress: Soldiers' Recollections of The Nanking Incident). Maru, January 1989 - December 1990.

Ara Kenichi. Kikigaki: Nankin Jiken (Interviews With Witnesses to the Nanking Incident). Tosho Shuppansha, 1987.

Adachi Sumio. Gendai Senso Hokiron (Theory of Modern Regulations Governing War). Keiseisha, 1979.

Aso Tetsuo. Shanhai yori Shanhai e (From Shanghai to Shanghai). Sekifusha, 1993.

Awaya Kentaro, Yoshida Yutaka, eds. Kokusai Kensatsukyoku: Jinmon Chosa (International Prosecutor's Office: Interrogations), Vol. 50. Nihon Tosho Center, 1993.

Boei Kenshujo Senshishitsu. (Defense Research Institute, Military History Department). Senshi Sosho: Shina Jihen Rikugun Sakusen 2 (Military History Series: Army Operations During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Part 2). Asagumo Shinbunsha, 1976.

Chen Shunchen. Chugoku Rekishi no Tabi (Journey Through China's History). Shueisha Bunko, 1997.

Chen Shunchen. Chugoku no Rekishi 6: Sekai Teikoku e (Chinese History 6: Toward a World Empire). Heibonsha, 1978.

Date Muneyoshi. Chugoku Kyosanto Ryakushi (A Short History of the Chinese Communist Party). Takushoku University, 1991.

Doi Shinji. Hana to Shi: Omoide no Izumi (Flowers and Poems: A Wellspring of Memories). Self-published, 1976.

Duus, Masayo. Haisha no Okurimono (Gifts from the Vanquished). Kodansha Bunko, 1995.

Eto Jun. Wasureta Koto to Wasuresaserareta Koto (What We Have Forgotten and What We Have Been Forced To Forget). Bungei Shunju, 1979.

Fuji Nobuo. Nankin Daigyakusatsu wa Ko Shite Tsukurareta (How the Great Nanking Massacre Was Manufactured). Tendensha, 1995.

Fuji Nobuo. Watakushi no Mita Tokyo Saiban (Witness to the Tokyo Trials). Kodansha Gakujutsu Bunko, 1989.

Fujioka Nobukatsu. Jigyaku Shikan no Byori (Pathology of a Masochistic Historical View). Bungei Shunju, 1997.

Fujioka Nobukatsu. Kingendaishi Kyoiku no Kaikaku (Reforming Modern and Contemporary History Education). Meiji Tosho, 1996.

Fujioka Nobukatsu. Ojoku no Kingendaishi (The Disgraces of Modern and Contemporary History). Tokuma Shoten, 1996.

Fujiwara Akira. Shinpan Nankin Daigyakusatsu (The Great Nanking Massacre: New Edition). Iwanami Shoten, 1992.

Fukuda Tokuyasu. "Timperley Hodo no Shinso" (The Truth About Timperley's Reports). Ichiokunin no Showashi: Nicchu Senso I (Showa Era History: The Sino-Japanese War I). Mainichi Shinbunsha, 1979.

Goto Kosaku, ed. Nankin Sakusen no Shinso: Kumamoto Dairoku Shidan Senki (The Truth about the Nanking Campaign: War Records of the 6th (Kumamoto) Division). Tokyo Johosha, 1966.

Government of Switzerland. Minkan Boei (Civil Defense). Hara Shobo, 1995.

Guo Moruo (Okazaki Toshio, tr.) Konichisen Kaisoroku (The Memoir of the War Against Japan). Chuo Koronsha, 1959.

Hamasaki Tomizo. Doronko no Hei (Mud-Covered Soldiers). Self-published, 1970.

Hamasaki Tomizo. Zoku Doronko no Hei (Mud-Covered Soldiers, Part 2). Self-published, 1983.

Hammer, Joshua. "Reipu de Umareta Kodomotachi" (Born Under a Bad Sign). Newsweek. December 25, 1996.

Hata Ikuhiko. Gendaishi no Soten (Modern History: Issues). Bungei Shunju, 1998.

Hata Ikuhiko. Nankin Jiken (The Nanking Incident). Chuko Shinsho, 1992.

Hata Ikuhiko. Rokokyo Jiken no Kenkyu (Study of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident). Tokyo University, 1997.

Higashinakano Shudo. "Aratamete Rabe no Nikki wo Tettei Kensho Suru" (Reexamining Rabe's Diary). Seiron, April 1998.

Higashinakano Shudo. "Nankin Jiken no Shinso" (The Truth About the Nanking Incident). Nihon Bunka Kenkyujo Kiyo (Japan Cultural Research Institute Bulletin), No. 2. Asia University: Japan Cultural Research Institute, 1996.

Higashinakano Shudo. "Nankin Tokumu Kikan (Mantetsu Shain) Maruyama Susumu Shi no Kaiso" (Mission in Nanking: (Manchurian Railway Employee) Maruyama Susumu's Recollections). Asia University: Japan Cultural Research Institute, 1996.

Higashinakano Shudo. "Tsukurareta Jiken: Nankin Daigyakusatsu (1 - 8)" (Fabricated Incident: The Great Nanking Massacre, Parts 1 - 8). Bunbu Shinron (Civil and Military Affairs: New Theories), Nos. 22 - 28, 1993.

Higashinakano Shudo. "Yahari Rabe no Nikki wa Santo Shiryo: Itakura Yoshiaki Shi no Hihan ni Kotaeru" (Rabe's Diary Is a Third-Rate Resource: Responding to Criticism from Itakura Yoshiaki). Seiron, July 1998.

Higashinakano Shudo, ed. Nankin Gyakusatsu Kenkyu No Saizensen 2002 (The Frontline of the Study on the "Nanking Massacre," 2002), Tokyo: Tendensha, 2002.

Higashinakano Shudo, ed. Nankin Gyakusatsu Kenkyu No Saizensen 2003 (The Frontline of the Study on the "Nanking Massacre," 2003), Tokyo: Tendensha, 2003.

Higashinakano Shudo, ed. Nankin Gyakusatsu Kenkyu No Saizensen 2004 (The Frontline of the Study on the "Nanking Massacre," 2004), Tokyo: Tendensha, 2004.

Honda Katsuichi. "Nachi Doitsu wo mo Kyogaku Seshimeta Nankin Daibogyaku Jiken" (Atrocities in Nanking that Astonished Even Nazi Germany). Asahi Journal, January 25, 1991.

Honda Katsuichi. Nankin e no Michi (The Road to Nanking). Asahi Shinbunsha, 1987. (Paperback: Asahi Bunko, 1994.)

Honda Katsuichi, ed. Sabakareta Nankin Daigyakusatsu (Judgement on the Great Nanking Massacre). Banseisha, 1989.

Honda Katsuichi. Travels in China, Tokyo: Asahi Shimbun, 1972.

Hora Tomio. Ketteiban: Nankin Daigyakusatsu (The Authoritative Version of the Great Nanking Massacre). Tokuma Shoten, 1987.

Hora Tomio. Nankin Daigyakusatsu no Shomei (Proof of the Great Nanking Massacre). Asahi Shinbunsha, 1987.

Ichiko Chuzo. Sekai no Rekishi 20: Chugoku no Kindai (Twentieth-Century World History: China in the Modern Age). Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 1990.

Ishii Itaro. Gaikokan no Issho (A Diplomatic Career). Chuko Bunko, 1992.

Ishikawa Tadahisa. Nankin Monogatari (The Story of Nanking). Shueisha, 1987.

Itakura Yoshiaki. "Nankin Daigyakusatsu no Shinso (Zoku)" (The Truth About The Great Nanking Massacre). Sekai to Nihon (The World and Japan), No. 420, 1984.

Itakura Yoshiaki. "Nankin Jiken: Gyakusatsu no Sekininron" (The Nanking Incident: Responsibility for the "Massacre"). Gunji Shigakkai Hen. Nicchu Senso no Shoso (Aspects of the Second Sino-Japanese War). Kinseisha, 1997.

Itakura Yoshiaki. "Nankin Jiken no Suryoteki Kenkyu (The Nanking Incident: Quantitative Research). Gunjishigaku (Military History), Vol. 26, No. 1. Gunjishi Gakkai Hen, 1991.

Itakura Yoshiaki. Tettei Kensho: Nankin Jiken no Shinjitsu (An Exhaustive Investigation: The Truth About the Nanking Incident). Nihon Seisaku Kenkyu Center, 1995.

Kaizuka Shigeki, Oshima Toshikazu. Sekai no Rekishi 3: Chugoku no Akebono (World History 3: The Emergence of China). Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 1989.

Kasahara Tokushi. Nankin Jiken (The Nanking Incident). Iwanami Shoten, 1997.

Kasahara Tokushi. Nankin Nanminku no Hyakunichi (One Hundred Days in the Nanking Refugee Zone). Iwanami Shoten, 1995.

Katogawa Kotaro. "Shogen ni yoru Nankin Senshi: Sono Sokatsuteki Kosatsu" (Eyewitness Accounts of the Battle of Nanking: A Comprehensive Examination). Kaiko, March 1985.

Kawabe Torajiro. Ichigayadai kara Ichigayadai e (From Ichigayadai to Ichigayadai). Jiji Tsushinsha, 1962.

Kawakatsu Yoshio. Chugoku no Rekishi 3: Gishin Nanbokucho (History of China 3: The Era of Two Dynasties). Kodansha, 1964.

Kimura Kuninori. Koseiha Shogun: Nakajima Kesago (A Rugged Individualist: General Nakajima Kesago). Kojinsha, 1987.

Kimura Kuninori. "Nankin Koryakusen: Nakajima Daijuroku Shidancho Nikki" (The Assault on Nanking: Diary of 16th Division Commander Nakajima). Zokan Rekishi to Jinbutsu (History and People: Special Edition), December 1984.

Kisanshi Hensan Iinkai (Committee for the Compilation of the History of the 3rd Cavalry Regiment). Kihei Daisan Rentaishi (History of the 3rd Cavalry Division), 1978.

Kitamura Tsunenobu, ed. Rikukaigun Fukuso Soshuzuten (Illustrated Encyclopedia of Army and Navy Uniforms). Kokusho Kankokai, 1996.

Kiyose Ichiro. Hiroku: Tokyo Saiban (Secret Records from the Tokyo Trials). Chuko Bunko, 1992.

Kobayashi Yoshinori. Shin Gomanizumu Sengen Supesharu: Sensoron (A New Declaration of Arrogant-ism: Military Theory Special). Gentosha, 1998.

Ko Bunyu. Ari no Mama no Chugoku (The Real China). Nihon Bungeisha, 1996.

Ko Bunyu. Netsuzo Sareta Nihonshi (The Fabrication of Japanese History). Nihon Bungeisha, 1997.

Ko Bunyu. Norowareta Chugokujin: Chugoku Shokujinshi no Judaina Imi (The Chinese Curse: The Significance of Cannibalism Throughout Chinese History). Kobunsha, Kappa Books, 1990.

Kobori Keiichiro, ed. Saikensho: Tokyo Saiban (Reexamination of the Tokyo Trials). PHP Kenkyujo, 1996.

Kobori Keiichiro, ed. Tokyo Saiban: Nihon no Benmei (The Tokyo Trials: Japan's Defense). Kodansha Gakujutsu Bunko, 1995.

Kojima Noboru. Nicchu Senso (The Sino-Japanese War). Bunshun Bunko, 1993 (First printing: 1984).

Kokusai Hogakkai Hen (International Law Society of Japan). Kokusaiho Jiten (International Law Dictionary). Kajima Shuppankai, 1982.

Komuro Naoki, Watanabe Shoichi. Fuin no Showashi (Sealed Showa Era History). Tokuma Shoten, 1995.

Komuro Naoki, Watanabe Shoichi. Mizukara Kuni wo Tsubusu no ka? (Are We Going To Destroy Our Own Nation?). Tokuma Shoten, 1993.

Lattimore, Owen (Haruki Takeshi, tr.). Ajia no Kaiketsu (Solution in Asia). Aoyama Gakuin Law Society, 1970.

Lindbergh, Charles A. (Shinjo Tetsuo, tr.). Lindbergh Dainiji Taisen Nikki (The Wartime Journals of Charles A. Lindbergh). Shinchosha, 1974.

Maeda Yuji. Senso no Nagare no Naka ni (Caught in the Current of War). Zenponsha, 1982.

Maruyama Susumu. "Nankin Jiken no Jisso" (The Realities of the Nanking Incident). Mantetsu Wakabakai Kaiho (Machurian Railway Wakaba Group Report), No. 138, January, 1998.

Matsumoto Shigeharu. Shanhai Jidai (Shanghai Sojourn). Chuko Shinsho, 1975.

Meiji Taisho Showa Shinbun Kenkyukai (Meiji, Taisho, Showa Period Newspaper Research Group). Shinbun Shusei Showa Hennenshi: Showa Juninenban (Annual Chronology from Newspapers in the Showa Era: 1937 Edition). Shinbun Shiryo Shuppan, 1990.

Mitamura Taisuke. Sekai no Rekishi 14: Min to Shin (World History 14: Ming and Qing Dynasties). Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 1990.

Morohashi Tetsuji. Daikanwa Jiten (Chinese Character Dictionary). Taishukan Shoten, 1968.

Muguruma Seijiro. Sekishunfu: Waga Seishun no Omoide (Memories of My Youth). Self-published, 1990.

Nagoshi Futaranosuke. Hannichi Kokka: Nippon (Japan, the Anti-Japanese Nation). Yamate Shobo, 1984.

Naito Chishu. Shigaku Gairon (An Outline of Historiography). Fukumura Shoten, 1961 (First printing, 1932).

Nakamura Akira. Dai Toa Senso e no Michi (The Road to the Great Asian War). Tendensha, 1990.

Nankin Senshi Henshu Iinkai (Battle of Nanking Editorial Committee). Nankin Senshi (The Battle of Nanking). Kaikosha, 1993.

Nankin Senshi Henshu Iinkai (Battle of Nanking Editorial Committee). Nankin Senshi Shiryoshu I (Source Material Relating to the Battle of Nanking, Vol. 1). Kaikosha, 1993.

Nankin Senshi Henshu Iinkai (Battle of Nanking Editorial Committee). Nankin Senshi Shiryoshu II (Source Material Relating to the Battle of Nanking, Vol. 2). Kaikosha, 1993.

Nihon Kokusai Mondai Kenkyujo (Japanese Institute for the Study of International Problems). Chugoku Kyosantoshi Shiryoshu (Chinese Communist Party History: Source Materials), Vol. 9. Kyoso Shobo, 1974.

Nishio Kanji. Kotonaru Higeki: Nihon to Doitsu (Disparate Tragedies: Japan and Germany). Bunshun Bunko, 1997.

Nishio Kanji. Rekishi wo Sabaku Orokasa (The Folly of Judging History). PHP Kenkyujo, 1997.

Nishio Kanji, Fujioka Nobukatsu. Kokumin no Yudan: Rekishi Kyokasho ga Abunai (An Indifferent Nation: Imperiled History Textbooks). PHP Kenkyujo, 1997.

Nishizawa Benkichi. Warera no Tairiku Senki: Hohei Dairokujuroku Rentai Daisan Chutai no Ayumi (Our Battles in China: 3rd Company, 66th Regiment). Self-published, 1972.

Nitta Mitsuo, ed. Kyokuto Kokusai Gunji Saiban Sokkiroku (Reports of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East). Yushodo Shoten, 1968.

Oi Mitsuru. Shikumareta "Nankin Daigyakusatsu" (How the "Nanking Massacre" Was Invented). Tendensha, 1995.

Okada Yuji. Nicchu Senso Urakataki (The Second Sino-Japanese War: Behind the Scenes). Toyo Keizai Shinposha, 1974.

Okumiya Masatake. Shinjuwan made no Gojunen (The 50 Years Preceding Pearl Harbor). PHP Kenkyujo, 1995.

Okumiya Masatake. Watakushi no Mita Nankin Jiken (Witness to the Nanking Incident). PHP Kenkyujo, 1997.

Ono Kenji, Fujiwara Akira, Honda Katsuichi, eds. Nankin Daigyakusatsu wo Kiroku Shita Kogun Heishitachi (Imperial Army Soldiers' Accounts of the Great Nanking Massacre). Otsuki Shoten, 1996.

Rabe, John (Hirano Kyoko, tr.). Nankin no Shinjitsu (The Truth About Nanking). Kodansha, 1997.

Rengogun Soshireibu Minkan Joho Kyoikukyoku Shiryo Teikyo (Civil Information and Education Division, Allied Headquarters) (Nakaya Ken'ichi, tr.). Taiheiyo Sensoshi (History of the Pacific War). Takayama Shoin, 1946.

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Sasaki Motokatsu. (Zoku) Yasen Yubinki (Field Post Office Flag, Part 2). Gendai Shiryo Center Shuppankai, 1973.

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Sato Kazuo, ed. Sekai ga Sabaku Tokyo Saiban (The Tokyo Trials: The World Passes Judgement). Jupiter Shuppan, 1996.

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Suzuki Akira. Nankin Daigyakusatsu no Maboroshi (The Illusion of a Great Nanking Massacre). Bungei Shunju, 1982.

Suzuki Chusei. Shincho Chukishi Kenkyu (Research on Mid-Qing Dynasty History). Aichi Daigaku Kokusai Mondai Kenkyujo, 1952.

Suzuki Akira. Shin Nankin Daigyakusatsu No Maboroshi (New Edition, The Illusion of the "Nanking Massacre"), Tokyo: Asuka Shinsha, 1999.

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Takahashi Shiro. Rekishi no Soshitsu (The Forfeiture of a National History). Sogo Horei, 1997.

Takikawa Masajiro. "Yoshu Tokaki to Nankin Daigyakusatsu Jiken" (Ten Days in Yangzhou and the Great Nanking Massacre). Sokoku to Seinen (The Fatherland and Young Men), July and August, 1985.

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Tanaka Masaaki. Nankin Jiken no Sokatsu (A Comprehensive Study of the Nanking Incident). Kenkosha, 1987.

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II. In other languages

Chang, Iris. The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

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Wickert, Erwin, ed. (John E. Woods, tr.). The Good Man of Nanking: The Diaries of John Rabe. Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.

Zawodny, K. Zum Beispiel Katyn: Klarung eines Kriegsverbrechens (Katyn: Elucidation of a War Crime). Munich: Verlag Information und Wissen, 1971.

Zeng Xubai. Zeng Xubai's Autobiography , Taipei: Shokukei Publishing, 1988.

Other Sources

I. In Japanese

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Atsuta Ko and others. Chugaku Shakai Rekishi Bunya (Social Studies for junior high schools: The Field of History). Osaka: Osaka Shoseki, 1999.

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Li Luzhou. Nankin Seifu no Jisso (The Realities of the Nanking Government). Toakai, 1935.

Lindley, Augustus F. (Masui Tsuneo, Imamura Yoshio, trs.). Taihei Tengoku (History of the Taiping Rebellion). Toyo Bunko, Heibonsha, 1974.

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II. In other languages

Abend, Hallett. Tortured China. New York: Ives Washburn, 1930.

Bacque, James. Other Losses: An Investigation into the Mass Deaths of German Prisoners at the Hands of the French and Americans After World War II, Toronto: Stodart Publishing 1990.

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Born in Kagoshima in 1947, Dr. HIGASHINAKANO Shudo is professor of history of political thought and Japanese intellectual history at Asia University in Tokyo. He majored in the history of German political thought and socialism at Kagoshima University and Osaka University. Prior to his appointment as professor at Asia University in 1995, he served as visiting professor of Japanese intellectual history at Western Washington University (1985-86), and visiting scholar at the University of Hamburg (1988-89).

In 1990, a year after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Dr. Higashinakano started to research the situation in Nanking in 1937. And since 1995, the main focus of his research interest has been this subject. He has been president of Japan Nanking Society since 2000. The original title of this translated work is "Nankin gyakusatsu" no tettei kensho [An exhaustive study of the "Nanking Massacre"] (Tokyo: Tendensha, 1998).

He has published many books, among them Nankin jiken "shoko shashin" wo kensho suru [Analyzing the "photographic evidence" of the Nanking Massacre] (co-authored with Kobayashi Susumu and Fukunaga Shinjiro, Tokyo: Soshisha, 2005), Nankin gyakusatsu kenkyu no saizensen, vols.1-4 [The front line of research on the Nanking Massacre, vols. 1-4] (Tokyo: Tendensha, 2002-2005), 1937 Nankin koryaku sen no shinjitsu [The truth about the capture of Nanking in 1937] (Tokyo: Shogakukan Bunko, 2003), An Overview of the Nanking Massacre (Osaka: Kokumin Kaikan, 1999), Za reipu obu Nankin no kenkyu [A Study of the Rape of Nanking] (coauthored with Fujioka Nobukatsu, Tokyo: Tendensha, 1999), Higashi Doitsu shakaishugi taisei no kenkyu [A study of the socialistic System in East Germany] (Tokyo: Nansosha, 1996), and Kokka hasan: Higashi Doitsu shakaishugi no 45 nen [Bankruptcy of a state: 45 Years of Socialism in East Germany] (Tokyo: Tendensha, 1992). One of his research papers, titled "The Overall Picture of the Nanking Massacre," is included in Nanking 1937: Memory and Healing (New York: M. E. Sharpe, 2002).

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