This page created 1 January 2004, and last modified: 7 October 2014 (P, B images added)
Nine units of lanciarii are noted in the Notitia. In the east:
Lanciarii seniores, a palatine unit under the Magister Militum Praesentalis Iand in the west:
Lanciarii iuniores, a palatine unit under the Magister Militum Praesentalis II
Lanciarii Stobenses, a comitatenses unit under the Magister Militum per Thracias
Lanciarii iuniores, a comitatenses under the Magister Militum per Illyricum
Lanciarii Augustenses, a comitatenses unit under the Magister Militum per Illyricum
Lanciarii Sabarienses, a palatine unit in the Magister Equitum's Gallic commandAll appear to be legionary units, although this is not explicit for the two pseudocomitatenses units. Exactly what sort of legionary units however is unclear. Their title 'lanciarii' would imply they were armed with a lancea (whence our modern 'lance'), usually meaning a spear equally suitable for throwing or thrusting, but that does not necessarily follow; nor might it automatically imply other legionaries did not carry lanceae. There is evidence that in the 3rd century at least, at least some legionary lanciarii were armed with what are better termed multiple light javelins rather than throwing spears; however, it is equally clear from other evidence that more "normal" legionaries could also be called lanciarii, at least in the 2nd century; see my (now rather dated) discussion about lanciarii. We even hear of mounted lanciarii, as attested by inscriptional evidence (AE 1981, 777) where the gravestone of one Aurelius Gaius describes him (in Greek) as an "ippeus lankiaris".
Lanciarii Gallicani Honoriani/Lanciarii Honoriani Gallicani, a comitatenses unit in the Magister Equitum's Gallic command
Lanciarii Lauriacenses, a pseudocomitatenses unit under the Comes Illyricum
Lanciarii Comaginenses, a pseudocomitatenses unit under the Comes Illyricum.
Shown above are the shield patterns of these units. A visual relationship between the Lanciarii seniores and the first unit of Lanciarii iuniores (under the Magister Militum per Illyricum), is immediately apparent.
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