"Chapter 8. Community Language Learning."
Community Language Learning (CLL), counseling learning, Charles Curran, humanistic approach, Rogerian counseling, language alternation, teacher-learner relationship, knower, social-process model, whole-person learning, consensual validation, convalidation, SARD, 5 stages of CLL
Community Language Learning --- application of counseling learning to teach languages
developed by Charles Curran
basic procedures are derived from the counselor-client relationship
related to humanistic approach (engaging the whole person)
application to bilingual education
language alternation --- a message/lesson/class is presented first in the native tongue and then again in the second language
Theory of language
language theory is built on basic sound and grammatical patterns
language as social process (distinctively different from information-transmission type of communication)
interaction is the key element of CLL
Theory of learning
CLL advocates a holistic approach (whole-person learning), contrasted with 1)a putative learning and 2) behavioral learning.
5 stages of the development of the learner's relationship with the teacher
the key element --- consensual validation, or convalidation, in which mutual warmth, understanding, and a positive evaluation of the other person's worth develops between the teacher and the learner.
SARD --- psychological requirements for successful learning
A (attention and aggression)
R (retention and reflection)
course progression is topic based
the syllabus emerges from the interaction between the learner's expressed communicative intentions and the teacher's reformulations of these into suitable target language utterances.
Types of learning and teaching activities
Learners are expected to listen attentively to the knower, to freely provide meanings they wish to express, to repeat target utterances without hesitation, to support fellow members of the community, to report deep inner feelings and frustrations as well as joy and pleasure, and to become counselors to other learners.
5 stages of learner development
|Stage 1||Learners are completely dependent on the knower for linguistic content.|
|Stage 2||Learners begin to establish their own self-affirmation and independence.|
|Stage 3||Learners begin to understand others directly in the target language.|
|Stage 4||Learners function independently, although his or her knowledge of the foreign language is still rudimentary.|
|Stage 5||Learners refine their understanding of register as well as grammatically correct language use and may become counselors to less advanced students.|
Teachers are like counselors
in the early stages of learning the teacher operates in a supportive role
Teachers are responsible for providing a safe environment
How much security and insecurity are optimal for language learning?
The role of instructional materials
A textbook is not necessary
materials may be developed by the teacher as the course develops
learners sit in a circle, all facing one another
Constraints and Problems of CLL
Brown, H. D. (1977). "Some limitations of C-L/CLL models of second language teaching." TESOL Quarterly 11.
La Forge, P. G. (1983). Counseling and Culture in Second Language Acquisition. Pergamon Press.
Moskowitz, G. (1978). Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Class. Newbury House.